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The short film “Mano a Mano,” from French director Louise Courvoisier, won the top prize from the Short Films and Cinéfondation Jury headed by Claire Denis at Cannes, the festival announced Thursday.

The jury led by Denis and consisting of Stacy Martin, Eran Kolirin, Panos H. Koutras and C?t?lin Mitulescu chose the winners between 17 student films out of 2,000 entries from 366 film schools around the world. The awards were presented at the 2019 Cinéfondation Prizes, now in its 22nd edition, during a ceremony held in the Buñuel Theatre, followed by the screening of the winning films.

The Cinéfondation allocates a €15,000 grant for the first prize, €11,250 for the second and €7,500 for the third. The winner of the first prize is also guaranteed the presentation of his or her first feature film at a future Cannes Film Festival. The awarded films will also be screened at the Cinéma du Panthéon on May 28.

Also Read: 'I Lost My Body,' 'Vivarium' Win Prizes in Cannes Critics' Week Section

First prize went to “Mano a Mano,” directed by Courvoisier and from the school CinéFabrique in France. It’s the story of two circus acrobats traveling from town to town to perform their duet, even as their romantic relationship is falling apart. They’re forced to confront their problems and regain their trust in one another while driving in a small car en route to their next performance.

Second prize went to “Hieu,” directed by Richard Van of CalArts in the US. The short is about a Vietnamese-American household that receives a surprise visit from a long-lost patriarch after he fails at a get-rich-quick scheme.

Finally, a joint third prize was awarded to both “Ambience” directed by Wisa Al Jafari out of the Dar al-Kalima University College of Arts and Culture in Palestine and “Duszyczka” (“The Little Soul”) from director Barbara Rupik at PWSFTviT in Poland.

Also Read: Cannes Report, Day 9: Xavier Dolan Grows Up, Neon Falls for 'Portrait of a Lady on Fire'

“Ambience” is about two young Palestinians who try to record a demo for a music competition inside a noisy, crowded refugee camp, only to discover a creative method to complete their deadline.

“The Little Soul” looks at a dead body that became stuck by a river bank. Its decaying insides still hide a human soul – a miniature of the deceased. When the organs rot, a tiny creature escapes, and it says goodbye to the corpse before setting off on a journey through the post-mortem land.

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The internet started to take on momentum in the 1990s. At that time many analysts, myself included, marveled at the opportunity of creating a platform that would boost grassroot democracy. There was no need for a middleman and there were few barriers to ordinary people becoming involved. This included organizing groups, discussions and events, sharing knowledge, insights and information, publishing opinions — just some of the potential attached to the internet. And for the first two decades, this basically was what happened, in a very positive and constructive way. It did disrupt several business, social and political models but that that was seen as 'a new broom sweeping clean.'

All of that is still happening — and as a matter of fact, it has only increased. However, at the same time, the ugly side of humanity has moved into this area as well. They all jumped on the bandwagon — cheats, plain criminals, misogynists, racists and bullies. This was very unfortunate, but it became serious when more organized misuse of the internet began to take place. This is undermining democracy and democratic processes; many people began to say enough is enough.

Most of the misuse is aimed at generating fake traffic that leads to extra advertising income or click income on YouTube for instance. In proportion to overall internet activity the other, serious political misuse is significantly less. It has, however, far deeper negative consequences. It is using manipulation to set people against each other. It interferes with democratic processes such as elections and undermines democratic institutions.

This criminal internet activity happens more or less in parallel with broader traditional forms of manipulations and is not limited to the internet. The fake news activities and the undermining of democratic institutions are for example carried out by President Trump without the internet. The same is happening in countries such as Britain, Turkey, Hungary, Poland and Italy, to name just a few.

There is no doubt that the internet has become an important tool to create division, hatred and conflict. This has more to do with human behaviour than with technology. Addressing only the technology element of this problem will not solve the much more serious underlying issues.

Division, lies, hatred, fake news, racism and conflict are being used by our leaders in public. It is then not difficult to understand that people perceive this as a license to do the same, with or without technology.

It is important to state that it is not the internet that is causing all of this. So far the internet has created far more positive than negative outcomes, and we need to preserve what's best about it. Most importantly, this includes the freedom for people to express themselves. Equally important is that entrepreneurs can innovate and build new business models. At the same time, we need to ensure that we protect society from broader harm.

We can look at what we have done with other tools that we use — tools like guns, cars, chemicals and drugs. All these products and services can have negatives associated with them. What we have done over the years to address this is to build elements into these products and services to limit the risk and increase safety.

This has been done through the hard work of everyone involved: the government and industry, as well as the users/consumers. As an example, look at cars in the 1970s. They killed 3 to 4 times more people than they do now, and our population has nearly doubled over that period. How did this change happen? Partly through regulation, partly through better products, and partly through human behaviour.

Have we, as a result, eliminated all the harmful elements of motor cars? No, of course not. But the risks have been reduced considerably over those years. This to such a level that the negative (e.g., death by car accidents) seems to be acceptable to most of us. Is that enough? No, it isn't. And so we are still trying to improve, through the combined efforts of government, industry and us, the people.

We will also have to begin to develop similar processes in relation to the internet. However, before we know what we need to do, we will first have to drill down to where the problems are and work out who can do what in addressing the issues.

Starting with the government, Mark Zuckerberg mentioned the need for a more active role for governments and regulators. He suggested the need for an update of the rules for the internet. In particularly in four areas: harmful content, election integrity, privacy and data portability.

In relation to the industry, he recommends starting with data manipulation aimed at defrauding the internet companies. Here the social media companies have a vested interest in tackling that problem themselves as fraud cost them money. The tools that they develop to minimize this can also be used to address other data manipulation issues — for example, interferences in elections and fake news. As Zuckerburg indicated, the government will also have to play a key role in setting up the rules for this. This will also need to be done at international levels.

It will remain a cat and mouse situation. New — more sophisticated — technologies to combat this will be developed, and they will be circumvented by criminals, and this process will continue. In the end, criminal interferences will be greatly reduced. The reason being that it simply becomes too costly for many of the groups to come up with their own tools to crack the ones developed by industry. The best hope here is for a managed situation, similar to those that have been created to manage other potentially dangerous tools, as in the motor car example.

A challenging issue here is the fact that what is harmful to one society, culture or religion is not necessarily the same for another group. A real threat — or even perhaps a reality — is that this would lead to a further regionalization of the internet. Countries such as China, Iran and North Korea have already created their own walls around the internet, and Russia is also trying to build its wall.

Another issue in relation to the industry is whether some of these companies are becoming too dominant and are showing monopolistic tendencies. A very human reaction to this is that we don't tolerate monopolies. We, therefore, need to start looking at industry legislation, be it anti-trust remedies, breaking up companies or other solutions.

Lastly, we also need to drill down on the people's side. We need to identify and address what causes the problematic behaviour of those misusing the internet before we can address these issues. Education and information at schools and elsewhere will be important. They will deliver longer-term positive outcomes.

Full-blown criminal behavior, racism, hate speech and the like are already punishable under existing laws. Our enforcement agencies, however, are still not well-equipped to address Internet-based crimes as effectively as they address similar crimes conducted in more traditional ways.

I am sometimes alerted by people who read my analyses to information or activities that are of an illegal or criminal nature. I report them to the appropriate authorities, but I have never received an answer from them. And if one goes to a police station to report internet abuse that will still too often elicit a blank look from the officer at the desk.

In order to get the people on board here, they need to be supported by well-functioning institutions. They should be able to take effective action against individuals that are crossing the line online. At the moment there is a feeling among the public that they are losing control over some of the central mechanisms of their lives. In the case of the internet, the lives of most people have been improved, and it has created lots of new economic activity. At the same time, it is also clear that the negatives of technology are such that people are not comfortable with the risks and safety issues. Comparing this with the example of motor cars, it is obvious that more work is needed. And whether we like it or not, people want action now.

So far this is resulting in some countries introducing broad and vague sweeping laws. Laws which are not implemented effectively, because it is impossible to do so while they are still being written. We clearly need to improve on that.

This will become increasingly apparent as time goes on. My colleagues in America say that the problems with the hastily introduced social media legislation will soon become evident in Australia. Other countries will learn from these mistakes and will adopt more realistic legislation to safeguard innovation, economic growth and freedom of speech. These core democratic elements seem to become the casualties of bad legislation. With a lack of effective self-regulation from the digital media giants, there is however no doubt that major changes to these negative elements in the use of the of the Internet will increasingly be regulated and legislated.

Written by Paul Budde, Managing Director of Paul Budde Communication | 4/24/19
There's a film festival kicking off this week in Poland called the American Film Festival. The AFF is the fall version of the New Horizons Film Festival (which screens mostly international films in July every year), organized by the New Horizons Association located at the Nowe Horyzonty cinema in the city of Wroclaw, Poland. This rather vibrant, distinct, energetic city is located inbetween Warsaw and Krakow, but much closer to Prague and Dresden. There's a number of big universities in Wroclaw, making it a lively university city with a student population of over 150,000. It's also the perfect place to host these film festivals, because many students love cinema and love to catch all these films from all around the world. I'm happy to be here. This is my second time back to the American Film Festival in Wroclaw, and while it's not exactly easy to get to (only via train/bus/car from Krakow or Warsaw) it's an invigorating and dynamic place. ...

Sept. 7: “The Nun” 

The “Conjuring” franchise is one of the most popular horror movie ones out there, and “The Nun” spinoff is only looking to elevate the series.

Sept. 14: “The Predator”

Though it was always billed as a reboot, director Shane Black has stressed that his movie “The Predator” is closer to a sequel, actually expanding on the backstory of the Predator aliens as seen in the first two Arnold Schwarzenegger films. And while it includes the likes of Boyd Holbrook, “Moonlight’s” Trevante Rhodes and Thomas Jane, early looks at ComicCon highlighted Black’s sense of humor as well, with Keegan Michael-Key and Olivia Munn doing some heavy lifting as well.

Sept. 14: “Lizzie”

The new take on the Lizzie Borden murders, starring Kristen Stewart and Chloe Sevigny, captivated fans at the Sundance Film Festival.

Sept. 21: “Maniac”

Jonah Hill and Emma Stone reunite after 2008’s “Superbad” for Netflix’s “Maniac,” in which the two play two people who are persuaded to participate in a pharmaceutical trial that will change their lives forever.

Sept. 21: “Colette”

Keira Knightley plays a writer who publishes her works under her husband’s name — both of them together crush gender norms. “Colette” was all the rage at the 2018 Sundance Film Festival.

Sept. 21: “Assassination Nation”

Another movie that made waves at Sundance, this film sold to the Russo brothers and Neon for a whopping $10 million, and follows a small town that absolutely loses its mind. Odessa Young, Hari Nef, Suki Waterhouse, Bill Skarsgard and Bella Thorne star.

Oct. 5: “Venom”

Tom Hardy steps into the role of Venom, one of the most popular characters from Spider-Man’s rogues gallery. With incredible special effects, Venom looks like he literally stepped out of the pages of the Marvel comics. Sony rebranded all their Spider-Man characters into “Sony’s Universe of Marvel Characters” with Venom leading the charge.

Oct. 5: “A Star Is Born”

Bradley Cooper! Lady Gaga! Bradley Cooper SINGING! We get it all in this movie.

Oct. 12: “First Man”

This will Damien Chazelle’s follow-up to “La La Land,” which scored him Best Director at the Academy Awards. With films like “Whiplash” and “La La Land” in his pocket, it’s hard not to get excited about this movie starring Ryan Gosling.

Oct. 12: “Bad Times at the El Royale”

Drew Goddard directs this ensemble cast of, well, beautiful people. Chris Hemsworth, Jon Hamm and Dakota Johnson star in the thriller about seven strangers meeting in a rundown hotel.

Oct. 12: “Beautiful Boy”

Timothee Chalamet captured everyone’s hearts with last year’s “Call Me by Your Name,” and early critics have been raving about the movie that looks at the experience of struggling with addiction over many years. Steve Carell also stars.

Oct. 19: “Halloween”

A remake of the 1978 horror classic of the same name? Count us in! John Carpenter directs with Jamie Lee Curtis reprising her role as Laurie Strode.

Nov. 2: “Bohemian Rhapsody”

The film has been in the news a lot, for good and bad — director Bryan Singer was fired and replaced, for one. But the movie amped up anticipation again with the first trailers in which star Rami Malek looks identical to Freddie Mercury. The casting couldn’t have been better.

Nov. 2: “Suspiria”

To be honest, Luca Guadagnino’s upcoming “Suspiria” remake has been haunting us for months with stills, teasers, and most recently, its first trailer. Dakota Johnson and Tilda Swinton star.

Dec. 21: “Aquaman”

Jason Momoa is back in a standalone film about Aquaman after appearing in “Justice League.” Prolific director James Wan, who is the mastermind behind the “Conjuring” and “Saw” franchises, is directing.

Dec. 21: “Cold War”

Pawel Pawlikowski’s follow-up to his 2013 Best Foreign Language Oscar winner “Ida” is a searing love story that plays out over ten years amidst the, well, Cold War in 1950s Poland and Paris. Ten different chapters offer glimpses at the rough love between a conductor (Tomasz Kot) and his ingénue (Joanna Kulig). An unforgiving, stylish and cynical lens make Pawlikowski’s cursed lovers all the more watchable.

Nov. 9: “The Girl in the Spider’s Web”

Claire Foy is stepping into the famous role of Lisbeth Salander, previously played by Rooney Mara, in this highly anticipated sequel to “The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.”

Dec. 25: “On the Basis of Sex”

In the midst of the #MeToo movement, Focus is releasing a biopic starring Felicity Jones as Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who authored majority opinions such as “United States v. Virginia,” which struck down any law that be admitted into schools.

Dec. 25: “Destroyer”

The first image for Karyn Kusama’s “Destroyer” was recently released, amping up anticipation for the director’s follow up to “The Invitation.”

Sept. 21: “Fahrenheit 11/9”

Alluding to his 2004 documentary “Fahrenheit 9/11,” Michael Moore’s upcoming documentary takes aim at Trump in the aftermath of the 2016 Presidential Election.

Oct. 19: “The Hate U Give”Heaven forbid, “The Hate U Give” may end up being one of the timeliest movies of the year. This adaptation of Angie Thomas’s young adult novel of the same name follows an African American teen turned activist after she witnesses her friend shot and killed at the hands of a police officer. The young Amandla Stenberg plays Starr Carter opposite a great cast including Regina Hall, Anthony Mackie, Issa Rae, Common and Russell Hornsby.

Dec. 19: “Mary Poppins Returns”

After Julie Andrews played the famous nanny in 1964’s “Mary Poppins,” Emily Blunt will step into her magical shoes, opposite Meryl Streep, Colin Firth and Julie Walters.

Nov. 21: “Green Book”

Peter Farrelly, of “There’s Something About Mary” fame, may seem like an odd choice for a biopic resembling “Driving Miss Daisy” and two Oscar nominees. But “Green Book” plays on the humor and true story drama between pianist Don Shirley (Mahershala Ali) and his driver Tony Lip (Viggo Mortensen), a surly, Italian American and former bouncer. During a tour of the South in the ’60s, “Green Book” probes themes of race as well as friendship.

Nov. 2: “Boy Erased”

Joel Edgerton returns to direct “Boy Erased,” which stars Lucas Hedges, Nicole Kidman, Russell Crowe and Edgerton. It follows Jared (Hedges) who is forced to take part in a gay conversion therapy program. It will have its premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival.

Nov. 16: “Widows”

Viola Davis, Elizabeth Debicki, Michelle Rodriguez and Cynthia Erivo are here to play women who kick ass after their late husbands leave a huge debt to crime lords.

Nov. 21: “Creed II”

2015’s “Creed” made a huge dent, both critically and commercially, and even scored Sylvester Stallone a Best Supporting Actor nomination from the Academy. We can’t wait to see what Michael B. Jordan cooks up in the sequel.

Nov. 16: “Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald”

Given the huge fanbase of the “Harry Potter” franchise, anticipation for the second film in the prequel series is high. This time, we’ll see Jude Law taking on the role of Young Dumbledore alongside Eddie Redmayne’s Newt Scamander.

Nov. 21: “Ralph Breaks the Internet”

Six years after “Wreck-It Ralph,” John C. Reilly reprises his role in the animated feature. Gal Gadot, Kristen Bell, Sarah Silverman, Jane Lunch, Taraji P. Henson and Mandy Moore are also lending their voices to the movie.

Dec. 14: “Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse”

Spider-Man: Into the Spider Verse will introduce audiences to Miles Morales, who took over as Spider-Man in the aftermath of the death of Peter Parker. From producers Christopher Miller and Phil Lord. The film is directed by Bob Persichetti. Miles Morales is voiced by Shameik Moore.

Nov. 23: “The Favourite”

“Maniac” isn’t the only film Emma Stone will star in this fall — she will also play a servant in Yorgos Lanthimos’ follow-up to “The Sacred Killing of a Deer,” titled “The Favourite.” Rachel Weisz, Olivia Colman and Nicholas Hoult also star.

Dec. 7: “Mary Queen of Scots”

Early photos of Saoirse Ronan and Margot Robbie as royal cousins amped up anticipation for the historical drama that will focus on the life of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Dec. 21: “Bumblebee”

“Bumblebee” isn’t just the first “Transformers” spinoff but also the first in the franchise to be directed by someone other than Michael Bay. So this prequel set in the ’80s, which looks like what would happen if E.T. was a giant, morphing, warrior robot, has a lot to prove. But the X-factor is Travis Knight, a veteran of the stop-motion animation studio LAIKA. “Bumblebee” is his live-action debut and only his second film after the Oscar-nominated “Kubo and the Two Strings.”

Nov. 30: “If Beale Street Could Talk”

All eyes are on Barry Jenkins after the Best Picture-winning success of his 2016 film “Moonlight.” His follow-up, which he writes and directs, is an adaptation of a 1974 novel by James Baldwin in which a Harlem woman named Tish (newcomer KiKi Layne tries to prove that her imprisoned fiancé is innocent while pregnant with their child. The film shares the lyrical, colorful look of “Moonlight,” but it also stars Regina King, Colman Domingo, Teyonah Parris, Diego Luna, Finn Wittrock and Pedro Pascal, Ed Skrein and Brian Tyree Henry.

Nov. 23: “Shoplifters”

Japanese director Hirokazu Kore-eda’s thoughtful and often heartwarming family dramas have long been a staple of Cannes and the art-house circuit, but his latest, “Shoplifters,” finally won him the Palme D’Or at Cannes this past summer. It tells of a family of small-time thieves who find a missing child on the street and welcome her into their home, only to have their shoplifting habits come under the microscope. | 8/29/18

Since changes made in 2009 Education in Poland starts at the age of five or six for the 0 class (Kindergarten) and six or seven years in the 1st class of primary school. It is compulsory that children do one year of formal education before entering 1st class at no later than 7 years of age. At the end of 6th class when the students are 13, they take a compulsory exam that will determine to which lower secondary school (gimnazjum, pronounced gheem-nah-sium) (Middle School/Junior High) they will be accepted. They will attend this school for three years for classes, 7, 8, and 9. They then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend. There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum. Both end with a maturity examination, and may be followed by several forms of upper education, leading to licencjat or inżynier (the Polish Bologna Process first cycle qualification), magister (the Polish Bologna Process second cycle qualification)and eventually doktor (the Polish Bologna Process third cycle qualification).

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