Français | English | Español | Português


The indigenous Sami people have fought for generations to preserve their identity. The latest battles are against Norway’s limits on reindeer herds. | 12/16/18

It won’t exactly be on a par with Oscars nominations morning, but Monday will be one of the biggest December days in the history of the Academy Awards.

That’s because for the first time, the Academy isn’t systematically doling out the short lists of films that remain in contention. Instead, they’re dropping all the lists at once in a single press release that will trim the fields in Best Documentary Feature, Best Foreign Language Film, Best Original Song and six other categories.

One drop, nine categories, a total of 101 films that’ll get good news and far more that’ll be disappointed.

The strategy of dumping all the Oscars short lists at once has not been greeted with universal approval. For one thing, contenders in the different categories were used to having their individual moments in the spotlight. Music Branch voters, who are facing a pair of short lists for the first time, now have far less time to listen and decide than they used to. And pundits will need to whip up instant analysis in nine categories simultaneously.

Also Read: Oscars' Best Picture Category Needs Fixing - Here's an Easy Way to Do It

But that’s the new rule, and all the lists will be out on the afternoon of Monday, Dec. 17.

(By the way, we hear that the news will come out in the afternoon because the procrastinators on the Foreign Language Film Award Executive Committee aren’t getting together until Monday morning to decide which three songs they’ll be adding to the six-film short list chosen by Oscars voters.)

Here’s the category-by-category breakdown of what will be coming on Monday.

Best Foreign Language Film
Number of films on the short list: 9

Three films seem guaranteed to land a spot: Mexico’s “Roma,” Poland’s “Cold War” and Lebanon’s “Capernaum.” Belgium’s “Girl” isn’t far behind, and voters reportedly adored Germany’s “Never Look Away.” Denmark’s “The Guilty” is a satisfying film that impressed voters, Sweden’s “Border” a twisted one that did the same.

The executive committee that adds three films to the shortlist may be hard-pressed not to take one or both of the two Asian standouts, South Korea’s “Burning” and Japan’s Palme d’Or winner “Shoplifters.” And watch out for the Paraguayan film, “The Heiresses,” which has strong support in both the general and executive committees.

Other possibilities include Iceland’s “Woman at War,” Norway’s “What Will People Say,” Colombia’s “Birds of Passage,” Hungary’s “Sunset” and Romania’s “I Do Not Care If We Go Down in History as Barbarians.”

Also Read: Oscars Foreign Language Race 2018: Complete List of Submissions

Best Documentary Feature
Number of films on the short list: 15

The four box-office hits that made this one of the best years ever for nonfiction filmmaking should all land on the list: “Free Solo,” “RBG,” “Three Identical Strangers” and the de facto frontrunner, “Won’t You Be My Neighbor?” (On the other hand, it’d be uncharacteristic of the Academy not to leave at least one of them off the final list of five nominees, and not entirely surprising if one of them doesn’t make the short list.)

Ever since the doc-branch rules were changed to do away with special screening committees in this category, voters have gravitated toward the films that have gotten the most buzz and received the most nominations for the IDA Awards, the Cinema Eye Honors and the like. That should mean that critical and awards favorites like “Minding the Gap,” “Hale County This Morning, This Evening,” “Crime + Punishment,” “Bisbee ’17,” “Dark Money,” “Of Fathers and Sons” and “Shirkers” will all be in contention. And watch out for the Spanish film “The Silence of Others,” a potential sleeper.

We also shouldn’t rule out documentary legend Frederick Wiseman for “Monrovia, Indiana,” or other well-received docs like “On Her Shoulders,” “The Bleeding Edge” and “United Skates.” On the showbiz doc front, movies like “Hal,” “Filmworker” and “Be Natural: The Untold Story of Alice Guy-Blache” have a shot, as does the released-at-last Aretha Franklin movie “Amazing Grace” and the Quincy Jones doc “Quincy,” whose subject has been highly visible on the campaign circuit lately. And I refuse to abandon hope that voters will recognize Eugene Jarecki’s sharp Elvis-and-America meditation “The King.”

Finally, Michael Moore’s “Fahrenheit 11/9,” the followup to the top-grossing nonfiction film of all time, has been bypassed by nearly all the precursor awards and may well be left off of this one as well. But Moore could still find a way in — after all, he was the prime mover on the changes that led to the current method of picking the short list, and he’s still a strong voice in the doc world.

Also Read: 'Minding the Gap' Wins Top Honor at IDA Documentary Awards

Best Original Song
Number of songs on the short list: 15

The two music categories are introducing short lists for the first time ever, presumably in order to give all the members of the music branch to hear and consider the 15 semi-finalists before voting for nominations. But that means they have less time to consider all the contenders, which this year number more than 70 in the song category.

Yes, we know that “Shallow,” the one song entered from “A Star Is Born,” will make it. And probably at least one of the two songs entered from “Mary Poppins Returns.” The Music Branch’s taste for hip-hop might be tested by “All the Stars” from “Black Panther,” but why wouldn’t they want Kendrick Lamar at the Oscars?

They also have to consider songs from luminaries like Dolly Parton (“Girl in the Movies” from “Dumplin'”), Annie Lennox (“Requiem for a Private War” from “A Private War”), plus two competitive songs from movies about Ruth Bader Ginsburg: “I’ll Fight” from “RBG” (written by nine-time nominee Diane Warren) and “Here Comes the Change” from “On the Basis of Sex.” “Revelation” from “Boy Erased” has a real shot, as does “Gravity” from “Free Solo.” And if they want to get truly adventurous, how about the Coup’s “OYAHYTT” from “Sorry to Bother You,” or Thom Yorke’s “Suspirium” from “Suspiria”? (Would the Radiohead frontman show up at the Oscars?)

The branch is well known for taking care of its own, which can’t hurt past winner Carole Bayer Sager’s “Living in the Moment” from “Book Club.” They also tend to like songs that are performed onscreen — which, in addition to being one more reason “Shallow” will get in, could help the songs from “Hearts Beat Loud,” the quintessential but twisted Disney-princess anthem from “Ralph Breaks the Internet” or the fatalistic cowboy tune “When a Cowboy Trades His Spurs for Wings” from “The Ballad of Buster Scruggs.”

And then there are songs from Patti Smith and Robyn Hitchcock and Elton John and Arlissa and Quincy Jones and Post Malone and Kendra Smith and Aoife O’Donovan and Imagine Dragons and Sade and David Crosby … It’s a deep list, not a shallow one. (Sorry.)

Also Read: How Movie Songs By Kendrick Lamar, Kesha and Troye Sivan Hope to Last Beyond Their Films (Video)

Best Original Score
Number of films on the short list: 15

As usual, more than 100 scores are in contention, with early awards singling out a group that includes “Black Panther,” “First Man,” “If Beale Street Could Talk,” “Isle of Dogs,” “Mary Poppins Returns,” “A Quiet Place,” “Mary Queen of Scots” and “Green Book.” Most and perhaps all of those should make the list, with other contenders including “BlacKkKlansman,” “Can You Ever Forgive Me?,” “On the Basis of Sex,” “The Hate U Give,” “Hereditary,” “Bad Times at the El Royale,” “Red Sparrow,” “The Predator” and “Solo: A Star Wars Story.”

Best Makeup and Hairstyling
Number of films on the short list: No more than 7

This is a category that’ll likely have three nominees, and one known for nominating films that won’t show up in any other category. This year, that could mean a “Suspiria” appearance on the short list. “Black Panther” and “The Avengers: Infinity War” will certainly be in play — and since makeup designed to make actors look like other people is usually a mainstay in the category, look for “Vice” and “Stan & Ollie” to show up as well. “Mary Queen of Scots” could make the cut too. And will Rami Malek’s Freddie Mercury teeth from “Bohemian Rhapsody” be enough to land that film a spot?

If a foreign film gets in, as one sometimes does (“A Man Called Ove,” “The 100-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared”), it could be “Border,” which turned a couple of actors into trolls.

Also Read: 'Border' Film Review: Are Moviegoers Ready for Hot, Hairy Troll Sex?

Best Visual Effects
Number of films on the short list: 10

A committee from the Visual Effects Branch has already narrowed the field to 20 films, so now it’s just a matter of cutting that number in half. The elaborate visions of “Avengers: Infinity War,” “Black Panther,” “Ready Player One” and perhaps “Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindewald” and “Solo: A Star Wars Story” are clearly contenders, with the subtler effects of “First Man” and the more retro charms of “Mary Poppins Returns” definitely in the mix as well.

Dark horses could include “Christopher Robin” and “Paddington 2” for their blend of live action and CG figures, and the stop-motion “Isle of Dogs,” which would be following in the footsteps of recent nominee “Kubo and the Two Strings.” Several late-breaking films have a shot as well, including “Aquaman,” “Bumblebee” and “Welcome to Marwen.”

Best Documentary Short
Number of films on the short list: 10

The shorts categories are hard to predict because most of the films haven’t been widely seen. But Academy volunteers have been watching them to compile the three lists, and it’s possible to pick up some buzz from festival screenings and awards campaigns.

Netflix has been a major player in doc shorts recently (it won its first Oscar for “The White Helmets”), and this year it has “Zion,” “Out of Many, One,” “End Game” and “Lessons From a School Shooting: Notes From Dunblane,” at least two of which should end up on the list. The New York Times Op-Docs series has “Dulce,” “Earthrise,” “We Became Fragments” and the wry and well-liked “My Dead Dad’s Porno Tapes,” the only short nominated by both the IDA Awards and Cinema Eye Honors.

Other IDA and Cinema Eye nominees include “Black Sheep,” “Baby Brother,” “Concussion Protocol,” “Fear Us Women,” “Lifeboat,” “Los Comandos,” “Mosul,” “Sidelined,” “Skip Day,” “The Girl and the Picture,” “Volte” and “We Are Not Done Yet.” The DOC NYC short list also singled out “’63 Boycott,” “The Head & the Hand,” “RX Early Detection” and “Take Back the Harbor,” while “Lotte That Silhouette Girl” tells the story of a woman animation pioneer from the pre-Disney days and could be attractive to the Academy.

Also Read: ShortList 2018: How 'My Dead Dad's Porno Tapes' Explores Family Secrets (Video)

Best Animated Short
Number of films on the short list: 10

The Annie Awards, the top prize given to animated films, singled out “Grandpa Walrus,” “Lost & Found,” “Solar Walk,” “Untravel” and “Weekends.” Pixar’s big short this year is “Bao,” and Pixar’s big short usually gets nominated. DreamWorks Animation, which has less consistent success in the category, is represented by “Bilby” and “Bird Karma.”

Other possibilities include “La Noria,” “Animal Behavior,” “Crow: The Legend” and “Age of Sail,” a Google Spotlight VR short made by John Kahrs, who won an Oscar for “Paperman.” “Raccoon and the Light,” “Daisy,” “The Green Bird” and “Re-Gifted” qualified by winning Student Academy Awards, while “The Driver Is Red” won the industry prize at theWrap’s ShortList Film Festival.

Best Live-Action Short
Number of films on the short list: 10

In a category where it’s almost impossible to get an overview of the field unless you’re a festival shorts programmer, standouts include “Fauve,” “Wren Boys,” “Skin” and “Bonbone,” as well as “Souls of Totality,” featuring Tatiana Maslany, and “Dear Chickens,” with Philip Baker Hall.

Timely films about the refugee crisis in Europe include “Bismillah” and “Magic Alps,” and Student Academy Award qualifiers are “Spring Flower,” “Lalo’s House,” “This Is Your Cuba,” “Get Ready With Me,” “Almost Everything” and “A Siege”; if history is any guide, at least one of them will make the list.

Related stories from TheWrap:

Jerry Seinfeld Says Kevin Hart 'Is Going to Be Fine' After Oscars Fallout (Video)

A Hostless Oscars? The Last Time the Academy Tried That, Things Got Ugly

10 Things We Learned at the Oscars' 10th Governors Awards | 12/14/18

This story about Paul Greengrass and “22 July” first appeared in the Actors/Directors/Screenwriters issue of TheWrap’s Oscar magazine.

Paul Greengrass remembers the moment when he knew he was going to make “22 July,” his gripping film about the right-wing terrorist attacks carried out on a Norwegian government center and an island summer camp in 2011. It came when he was reading the court testimony of Anders Behring Breivik, the white nationalist whose views led him to kill 77 people, most of them teenagers.

“He was talking about how the elites have betrayed us, democracy is a sham, we’re being forced to accept multiculturalism against our will, nationalism is being eroded, et cetera,” said the British director, whose previous films have included “Captain Phillips,” “United 93” and three Jason Bourne movies.

“When Breivik got up and articulated those views in 2011, they were considered in the far margins of political discourse. Today, no right-wing populist politician would have a problem with those views. Of course, and it’s important to say this, they wouldn’t endorse his methods. But in a sense, that doesn’t matter. The scary thing is that this worldview is at the center of politics in your country, in mine and right across Europe.

“That’s why you have this right-wing, populist typhoon blowing through the West. It’s there because millions of people throughout the West are worried about their jobs, they feel that the system is rigged against them and they fear a loss of identity because of population movements. For sure, Breivik’s views are now in the mainstream — and when I heard them, that was really the moment when I knew I wanted to make this film.”

Also Read: '22 July' Director Paul Greengrass Explains Why a Story of Terrorism in 2011 Is So Timely Today (Exclusive Video)

But “22 July” is a different kind of Greengrass film. Although it is in English, it was made with an all-Norwegian cast and crew — and even before he decided to make it, the director known for his visceral movies had decided that he wanted to make a more restrained film.

“I wanted to push less hard — to be a bit gentler, I suppose,” he said. “And working with a bunch of actors I didn’t know and a crew I didn’t know gave me a sort of creative reset.”

The result is a quietly bold film that focuses not on the terrorist attack, but on its long and painful aftermath; the director known for plunging audiences into the moment of action moves past the attack less than 40 minutes into a two-hour-and-20-minute movie. The bulk of the film follows the way Norway’s government and court system responded, and the way the survivors tried to piece their lives together.

“The story I wanted to tell was about what happened afterwards, how Norway fought for her democracy in the face of the attack,” he said. “Because I think that’s the story of where we are today. How do we fight for our democracy at a time when it’s under profound challenge?”

Also Read: '22 July' Film Review: Paul Greengrass Calms Down but Still Packs a Powerful Punch

The key to making the film, he said, was to figure out exactly what its function should be. “The beauty of cinema is that it can be lots of different things,” he said. “There’s the mission to entertain, which is a noble mission, because it goes back to the birth of cinema. People who had hardscrabble lives flocked to the movies because it was the one time in the week where for very little money they could get two or three hours of entertainment and escape their hard lives. So that central mission, to entertain, is a great and noble one.

“But obviously cinema is an art form, too. And individual filmmakers make films that are about their private concerns and private obsessions, their own personal take on the world. Those can be entertaining or austere or obscure or haunting or magical — and you go to those filmmakers because you want to take that journey with them.”

He paused. “And then, I suppose, this is really where this film comes in: From time to time, cinema has to look unflinchingly at the world, hold a mirror up to the world. It’s important, amidst the many missions of cinema, that it does that. Because if it loses that connection with the real world, it’s no longer alive. Across 100 years, films have always dared to look at troubled times and tell the truth about them. And that’s what I’ve tried to do.”

To read more TheWrap’s Actors/Directors/Screenwriters issue, click here.

Related stories from TheWrap:

'22 July' Director Paul Greengrass Explains Why a Story of Terrorism in 2011 Is So Timely Today (Exclusive Video)

Oscars' Best Picture Category Needs Fixing – Here's an Easy Way to Do It

11 Best Movies of 2018, From 'Paddington 2' to 'Eighth Grade' (Photos) | 12/14/18

Zain (Zain Al Rafeea) is an abrasive, unkempt boy of either 12 or 13 years old. Neither he nor his parents quite know his age for sure. His parents’ neglect is only part of the reason why Zain wants to sue them for bringing him into this world without a care. He hopes to stop them from having any more neglected children like himself or his beloved sister, Sahar (Cedra Izam), who they sold into an early marriage. Yet this is still only the beginning of Zain’s sad story.

Nadine Labaki’s “Capernaum” is a brutally honest — sometimes difficult to watch — drama about neglected children. Some, like Zain, are the innocent victims of a bad situation, joining a big family already burdened with an absurdly small income. Others are the victims of circumstance, like when a hardworking, caring Ethiopian migrant, Rahil (Yordanos Shiferaw), is arrested for her expired (and forged) paperwork. She can say nothing of her baby Yonas (Boluwatife Treasure Bankole) at home, or she risks losing custody of the infant.

Despite his parents’ mistreatments, Zain tries to do the right things for his siblings. He’s especially protective of Sahar and tries to save her from being sold into marriage. When that fails, he runs away from home. He stumbles onto a dusty fairground where one of the workers, Rahil, takes pity on the forlorn-looking boy asking everyone for work. She takes Zain in and asks the boy to look after Yonas while she works.

Also Read: 'Capernaum' Director Left Out 'Shocking' Details About Kids on the Streets That Audiences Couldn't Handle

Unfortunately, as an undocumented migrant vulnerable to extortion, she’s unable to pay the high price to forge her papers and is arrested, leaving the two boys to fend for themselves. So the resourceful Zain does what he’s always done: survive. He figures out how to feed the baby without its mother’s milk, where to find alternative places to shower when they run out of water, how to create a carriage out of a stolen skateboard and pots and how to use what he learned working for his parents’ drug business to earn money. But every step towards survival is met with complications, and Zain’s growing frustration with this unkind world drives him to want to leave the country — potentially without Yonas.

“Capernaum” has garnered much attention for shining a light on the exploitation of children, migrants and refugees. The movie earned a rapturous debut at Cannes, and Lebanon selected the film as its Oscar contender for the foreign language film category. Labaki, whose previous film “Where Do We Go Now?” was also chosen as Lebanon’s Oscar submission in 2012, collaborated with cinematographer Christopher Aoun to look for beauty in this tragedy. They hone in on details like the sunlight brightly streaming into Zain’s messy home or in touching close-ups of Zain playing with Yonas.

Also Read: Do the Oscars Have an Asia Problem in the Foreign Language Film Race?

Labaki’s film hinges on the heartfelt emotions of a little boy struggling to survive, and she cast Al Rafeea, then a 12-year-old illiterate Syrian refugee, to carry the film’s extraordinary emotional demands. At times, the beatings and arguments in “Capernaum” can look frightful; I worried for the children in the scenes. Recently, the director shared that the boy and his family have resettled in Norway, which was similar to his character’s escape plan to go to Europe.

In the movie, Zain can be defiant, ready to curse or to fight anyone who crosses him or anyone in his care. But he’s not always a raw nerve looking for a brawl. In scenes of quiet desperation, Labaki’s camera focuses on the actor’s eyes and his defeated body posture to get a sense of the internal fight going on in his head. There’s a melancholy tone throughout the film, even in its most innocent moments, like when Zain is playing with Yonas in his crib.

Watch Video: 'Capernaum' Director Nadine Labaki Says Refugee Child Star Is Safe and Resettled

There’s no reprieve from the extreme poverty that fuels Zain’s parents’ abuses or that drives Rahil to risk everything to care for her child. Sadness isn’t just around every corner of this film; it is in the viewer’s face throughout its runtime.

In a handful of drone shots in the movie, Labaki extends her lens beyond the suffering of her characters. As the camera flies up, it loses track of the kids. The shot is now focused on the seemingly endless blocks and rows of rundown homes and crumbling apartments. The children’s suffering is lost in a sea of inescapable hardship. Days after watching the movie, I still have some reservations about how abuse is shown in the film, but it’s hauntingly effective. I haven’t been able to shake those images since.

Related stories from TheWrap:

Oscar Foreign Entry 'The Great Buddha+' Director Says Authority 'Confines and Defines Us'

Oscar Foreign Entry 'Village Rockstars' Director: 'I Started From Nothing With Only a Camera'

Oscar Foreign Entry 'Barbarians,' About Genocide in Romania, Was Nearly Shut Down Mid-Shoot

'Roma,' 'Cold War' Lead Academy's List of 87 Films in the Oscars Foreign Language Race | 12/13/18
There's a lot of Brexit chat about Norway... could it solve the Prime Minister's EU problem? | 12/11/18
Britain could consider a so-called "Norway-plus" deal with the European Union if Prime Minister Theresa May fails to win lawmakers' approval for her Brexit deal, a senior British Cabinet minister said Saturday. | 12/8/18
Jo Johnson and Stephen Kinnock argue for and against an alternative Brexit option. | 12/7/18
Norway’s Beaten to Death premiere a new song titled "Livet Tar, Og Livet Tar", taken from their upcoming new album "Agronomicon", which will be out in stores December 24th on Mas-Kina Recordings. Check out now "Livet Tar, Og Livet Tar" below. Read More/Discuss on Metal
Photographer Mads Nordsveen describes the sighting as a "fairytale moment". | 12/4/18

On Monday Marvel dropped the second trailer for “Captain Marvel,” the first female-led standalone movie for the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and at first glance it seemed pretty straightforward — it’s a movie about a superpowered woman trying to find out who she really is and getting caught up in some kind of crazy cosmic conflict.

But at second — and third, and fourth, and fifth, and so on (we’re not kidding) — it doesn’t seem quite so simple. Combine that with the assumption that “Captain Marvel” will in some way be a crucial piece of the greater MCU story ahead of “Avengers 4” next May, and there’s a lot to try to parse from this two-minute trailer.

So after spending way too much time staring at the new “Captain Marvel” trailer, we’ve got a lot of questions. Let’s get into it.

Also Read: New 'Captain Marvel' Trailer Filled With Wild Space Action (Video)

1. How Is Carol Danvers Secretly Important to Whatever Is at the Center of the Story?

There’s a conspicuous line early on in the trailer: Carol Danvers/Captain Marvel (Brie Larson), speaking to Nick Fury (Samuel L Jackson) declares that “something in my past is the key to all of this.” Assuming that “all of this” is referring to the general conflict at the core of the movie, which involves the galactic war between the Kree and the shapeshifting Skrulls, why would Carol Danvers’ past be so crucial?

She was, after all, just a regular human before she was converted to the (we think) half-Kree superhero that she is now. Did she stumble into some kind of important battle? Did she see something she wasn’t supposed to? Did the Kree wipe her memory to make her forget whatever it was?

There’s also the looming threat of Thanos in the Marvel Cinematic Universe’s future. And as we saw during the post-credits scene in “Infinity War,” Nick Fury specifically called her when he realized what was happening. We have to think then, if this movie is so important to the greater story of “Avengers: Infinity War” and “Avengers 4,” that whatever it is in her past that’s so crucial in this moment may very well also be the key to saving the universe from Thanos.

We just have no idea what it might be at this point.

Also Read: How Will 'Captain Marvel' Play Into That Wild 'Avengers: Infinity War' Ending?

2. And Related to That, Will “Captain Marvel” Reveal Why Earth Is so Central to the Greater Galactic Situation?

If there’s one thing the Marvel Cinematic Universe has made crystal clear since at least “Thor,” it’s that Earth has some kind of crucial connection to events of galaxy-scale importance, even if puny earthling aren’t directly involved. And that was true long before the two times Thanos tried to invade the planet.

For starters, we know the Kree have been meddling with humanity behind the scenes for millennia, which is how the (we assume still-canon) Inhumans were created. Later on, during the middle ages, Norway was the site of a critical battle between the forces of Asgard and the Frost giants, which is of double importance because it’s after this battle that Odin decided Earth was the best place to hide the Space Stone. (Also known as the Tesseract.)

Somehow the Space Stone remained safely hidden for centuries. Not only that, but Earth also became home to another Infinity Stone, the Time Stone, kept safe for thousands of years by Masters of the Mystic Arts. And even after the Space Stone was removed from earth, the Mind Stone stayed behind on Loki’s scepter, meaning that for more than a thousand years, there have been at least two Infinity Stones on earth at any given time.

Also Read: The Complete Timeline of Marvel Cinematic Universe Movies, From 'Iron Man' to 'Ant-Man and the Wasp'

Meanwhile, out of all the sentient races in the galaxy, Ego the Living Planet was only able to produce a child who could inherit Ego’s powers successfully with a human — the resulting child, Peter Quill, even survived direct contact with an infinity stone without dying.

And that’s not even getting into how Carol Danvers is either a half-human, half kree, or a human turned by science magic into a human-kree hybrid — remember, according to Marvel studios boss Kevin Feige, Carol is the most powerful superhero in the MCU.

So, what’s up with that? Clearly, Earth and the human race have some kind of special importance. And whatever secret thing is in Carol’s backstory may help explain that.

Also Read: All 35 Stan Lee Marvel Movie Cameos Ranked, Including 'Venom' (Photos)

3. How Long Was Carol Actually With the Kree?

“Captain Marvel” takes place at some point in the 1990s, and we can infer that when we meet her, she’s an experienced Kree warrior with years of service under her belt. Carol certainly seems to think she’s 100% a Kree at the beginning of this trailer. But she’s also having flashes of old memories that clearly happened here — she appears to have been an Air Force captain —  and she enlists Nick Fury to help her find out WTF.

We have to wonder how old those memories are. What if Danvers was in the Air Force much earlier than the 90s setting, like sometime in the 1980s? She could still look so young as a result of faster-than-light travel time dilation. It could also just be that the space magic the Kree put into her bloodstream allowing her to live longer. Living longer is one of the perks of being Kree, after all.

One thing is for sure: Nick Fury isn’t yet the eyepatched, badass leader of S.H.I.E.L.D. we know and love. But he’s in SHIELD, so presumably has access to government records that could possibly shed light on Carol’s past. It would be weird if all he has to do is visit the Pentagon to find records going back to the early Clinton administration — which is at most just a couple of years earlier.

Also Read: With 'Luke Cage' and 'Iron Fist' Canceled, Is Netflix's Marvel TV Universe Falling Apart? (Commentary)

4. And Why Does Carol Think She’s a Kree?

In the trailer, Carol indicates that she doesn’t know she’s from Earth. This is not part of Carol’s story in the comics, and so it feels like a really significant point. It also provides a parallel to another MCU character, Peter Quill, who thought he was fully human before discovering that his dad was actually a Celestial.

Just as that revelation had universe-shattering consequences for Quill, could the fact that Carol thinks she’s a full-on alien only to discover in this movie that she’s actually a human, enhanced with Kree DNA, be similarly huge? Considering that seems to be the entire plot of the movie, it seems likely.

Speaking of…

5. Who Is Actually the Villain?

The trailer shows how, at first anyway, Carol is a devoted Kree warrior in the fight against the shapeshifting Skrulls, until at some point she decides to stop fighting the war. That makes us think the Skrull, whatever they’re actually up to on Earth, aren’t actually the bad guys their naturally-reptilian green skin and pointy ears would suggest. Despite Carol Danvers explicitly telling Nick Fury otherwise.

Also Read: 'Avengers: Infinity War' -- Here's What Happened Next in the Comic Book Version of the Story

We think the trailer actually spells it out for us: the villain is whoever Annette Bening is playing. The clue comes during the scene in which Bening’s still-unrevealed character breaks down Carol’s origins to her: how the Kree found Carol injured and suffering amnesia, added some Kree… stuff to her bloodstream, and made her better, stronger, faster, etc. Here’s a screenshot:

Now check out the moment Carol starts to tell an unseen *someone* “I’m not gonna fight your war. I’m gonna end it”:

Kind of looks like they’re standing in the same room for that conversation, doesn’t it? And Bening’s comment sure feel like the kind of thing someone who’s been gaslighting you (for their twisted idea of The Greater Good) might say near the end of a story, when you find out and try to quit.

And finally…

6. What Are the Skrulls Up to on Earth?

If Annette Bening’s Kree character is the true villain here, then what does that mean for the Skrulls? In the comics, the Skrulls only end up in a war with the Kree because the imperialistic Kree came after them first — meaning there’s a good chance that the MCU Skrulls could in turn be less villainous than they appear.

Meanwhile, the main thrust of the action that we’ve seen so far indicates that the Captain Marvel has chased the Skrulls to Earth, but why did they go there? Is this just a random place they fled to, or are they after something specific? Maybe an Infinity Stone to use against the Kree? Earth sure seems to have a lot of them…

Related stories from TheWrap:

How Will 'Captain Marvel' Play Into That Wild 'Avengers: Infinity War' Ending?

Marvel Hints at More 'Daredevil' After Netflix Cancellation

'Marvel's Runaways' Go to War With Their Parents in Season 2 Trailer (Video) | 12/4/18
Norway and Lyon striker Ada Hegerberg wins the inaugural Women's Ballon d'Or award, with England's Lucy Bronze sixth. | 12/3/18
In “The Grandmaster,” Brin-Jonathan Butler covers the 2016 World Chess Championship, which pit Norway’s Magnus Carlsen against Russia’s Sergey Karjakin. | 11/30/18
Norway's world number one Magnus Carlsen retains his World Chess Championship after 12 draws and more than 50 hours of play - eventually beating Fabiano Caruana in a tie-breaker. | 11/29/18
Norway's world number one Magnus Carlsen retains his World Chess Championship after 12 draws and more than 50 hours of play - eventually beating Fabiano Caruana in a tie-breaker. | 11/29/18
Sometimes, it's the least glamorous uses of self-driving tech that can be the most important. Volvo has struck a deal that will have six of its autonomous trucks carrying limestone from a Brønnøy Kalk mine in Norway to a port roughly 3... | 11/26/18
A 26-year-old man has been accused of impersonating a teenage girl online to lure hundreds of boys into sending him explicit images and of abusing some of them offline. | 11/24/18
Sometimes it seems as if we’re living under a constant barrage of heavy news. But it isn’t all bad out there. | 11/22/18
The 26-year-old is charged in a case described as Norway's most extensive sexual abuse case. | 11/21/18
Chess is omnipresent in Norway, the home to the world champion Magnus Carlsen. And, somehow, it has become cool. | 11/21/18

At the Academy’s Governor’s Ball this past weekend, Nadine Labaki, the director of Lebanon’s Oscar foreign language submission “Capernaum,” said she witnessed her child star Zain Al Rafeea sign his name for what would’ve been one of the first times in his life.

Zain is a Syrian refugee who was living in Lebanon for eight years when Labaki found him. He was 12 at the time of shooting “Capernaum” but then did not know how to read or write. Today, Labaki informs that Zain is safe and resettled with loving parents in Norway. And he finally put his newfound skills to good use when he got to visit Los Angeles and even see the Beverly Hills Hilton.

“He’s seen so much in his life, nothing really impresses him anymore. He’s very tough, a very wise child,” Labaki told Sharon Waxman Monday as part of TheWrap’s Awards and Foreign Screening Series at the Landmark Theatres in Los Angeles. “Life has been really great to him, and he’s regaining his childhood. When you see him, he looks like any other normal child.”

Also Read: 'Woman at War' Director on What Tom Cruise Could Learn From His Quirky Icelandic Thriller

Labaki explained that Zain’s upbringing was very much like that of his character, a Lebanese boy attempting to sue his neglectful parents after he’s imprisoned for stabbing someone. He runs away from home and finds himself caring for the baby of an illegal refugee from Ethiopia after she’s separated from her child. His scrappy, street-smart resourcefulness, defeatist outlook on life and vulgar language have rapidly made him into an adult. Yet Zain’s character has no papers, no ID and no birth certificate to pinpoint his age. And like his character, Zain grew up so malnourished, he’s far smaller than other boys his age.

Khaled Mouzanar and Nadine Labaki, filmmakers of “Capernaum”/Photo by Ted Soqui

“They’re not children anymore. Most of them have lost their childhood. They’re as adult as you and me, if not more.” Labaki said. “The sight of children on the streets is a sight you see a lot. And unfortunately it’s growing more and more. It’s becoming part of our daily lives. We live with it and don’t even notice it. So it’s about trying to understand, how did we get to this point? How did we allow ourselves to get to a point where we don’t really look at those children anymore and just live with it?”

Intriguingly, watching “Capernaum” is specifically designed to make you wonder how we got to this point. The film cuts back and forth between Zain’s appearance in court and his childhood excursions. So we know what his fate will be, but not the circumstances that got him there.

It’s a bleak, but moving story that producer and composer Khaled Mouzanar says started with a cut of the film that was 12 hours long, whittled down from 600 hours of rushes over six months of filming and two years of editing. Labaki said she couldn’t bear lose any of the unexpected, improvised moments that were unearthed in the course of filming and even teased that she still has a copy of the longer version of the film.

Also Read: 'Girl' Director on Screening Trans Film Now: 'Let's Invite Trump to Come Watch'

“I don’t know if I’m ever going to let go of those 12 hours,” Labaki said. “It’s difficult to say I’m not going to share this. It’s so beautiful, it’s so amazing. ‘Capernaum’ means chaos and miracles, and we were in that all the time. Beautiful miracles happened all the time.”

Labaki however says that the story of “Capernaum” is far bigger than just her as a filmmaker. In addition to helping to support Zain and bring him out of poverty, the filmmakers have started a scholarship fund and are working to aid all the other children featured in the movie, many of whom she says still live in dire conditions. Nearly one million Syrian refugees were reported in Lebanon in 2016. And Labaki says her film is dedicated to the millions of children not just in her country but around the world who have gone through what Zain has.

“It’s all about those children paying the highest price for our faults, and our conflicts and our stupid decisions and our stupid governments, and our wars.” Labaki said. “I don’t know how much we’re acknowledging the problem. I don’t know if we’re aware how big the problem is.”

“Capernaum” won the Jury Prize at this year’s Cannes Film Festival and opens in theaters from Sony Pictures Classics on Dec. 14. Watch a video clip of TheWrap’s panel discussion with Labaki and Mouzanar above.

Related stories from TheWrap:

'Capernaum' Director Left Out 'Shocking' Details About Kids on the Streets That Audiences Couldn't Handle

'The Favourite' Tops BIFA Nominations for British Independent Films

'Roma,' 'Cold War' Lead Academy's List of 87 Films in the Oscars Foreign Language Race | 11/20/18

This story on “The Guilty” first appeared in the Foreign Language issue of TheWrap’s Oscar magazine.

Director Gustav Möller’s first feature film, “The Guilty,” is a thriller that takes place entirely in one room, as a police dispatcher tries to deal with a panicked call from a kidnapped woman while never leaving his desk.

The film is Norway’s entry in this year’s Oscar foreign-language race, and this is one of a series of interviews with directors of the foreign contenders.

Also Read: 'The Guilty' Film Review: Denmark's Oscar Entry Spins Breathless Suspense

You’d just come out of film school, you were making your first feature and you chose an idea where the concept gave you big limitations as a filmmaker. Was there any sense that maybe you should have started with something simpler?
I don’t think I would want to spend two or three years on something simpler. Then I would get bored. I like a film to be a challenge or an unanswered question. And with this film the question was, “Can we pull this off? Will this work?”

Suspense is the main tool in this film. And I think it’s always hard to make suspense work for a full 90 minutes. Looking at it from the outside, it’s clearer that a one-location film poses that difficulty, but I think it’s always a challenge.

The film was inspired by a real 911 call, wasn’t it?
The call was a clip I found on YouTube. In a way, it was similar to the one in the film: a kidnapped woman calling 911, sitting next to her abductor and speaking in code to the operator. It was a 20-minute call, and I was hooked. It was fascinating to me that a phone call could be that exciting. And after I listened to the call, I really had a sensation of having seen this woman and the car she was riding in.

And the big kicker was the fact that you and me, listening to this call, would see two different women in two different cars on two different highways. That was the starting point, to make a film that would play out in a different way for everyone watching it.

Also Read: Oscars Foreign Language Race 2018: Complete List of Submissions

If you’re restricted to a single location for the entire film, how do you keep things interesting visually?
We shot the whole film in chronological order, ranging from 5-to-35-minute takes. And we shot the whole thing with three cameras, because I wanted a real-time sense in the acting. If we had a good five minutes of acting, I wanted to be covered.

And from there, me and my DP broke down the script into eight parts, so we would shoot the film in eight takes. And we would look at where the main character was mentally. At the start of the film, he was more distant and in control, so we shot it with long lenses, a static camera. And as he gets more involved we start using Steadicam, we start using hand-held. It was always important for us to have the main character’s psychology determine how we should shoot the film.

To read more of theWrap’s Foreign Language issue, click here.

Photo by Elisabeth Caren for TheWrap

Related stories from TheWrap:

Oscars Give More Power in Foreign Language Voting to LA Members (Exclusive)

'Roma,' 'Cold War' Lead Academy's List of 87 Films in the Oscars Foreign Language Race

Academy Makes More Changes to Open Up Oscars Foreign Language Voting (Exclusive) | 11/17/18
German duo Mantar has posted a statement online stating that their show in Oslo tonight has been cancelled, after they were turned away the Norwegian border. The statement reads as follows: "KEEP Norway GREAT, "KEEP MANTAR OUT! Oslo show cancelled! "Bad news: we got denied at the border due to some weird tax shit we were supposed to pay for ... Read More/Discuss on Metal
Russian military units in the Arctic jammed GPS signals being used during largescale NATO exercises in Norway that ended last week, the Norwegian Defense Ministry said Tuesday. | 11/14/18

The people of Hong Kong and Norway are the only ones in the world now paying higher gasoline prices than Bajans. That’s according to new information published by, an online data... | 11/13/18
The Canadian city is set to vote on whether to bid for the 2026 Games. Norway and Austria and Switzerland have already passed. | 11/12/18
The frigate had been in touch with the oil tanker before they hit each other in a fjord on Thursday. | 11/9/18
Norway evacuates a frigate after it collides with a tanker, leaving seven people lightly injured. | 11/8/18

The security of the global Default Free Zone (DFZ) has been a topic of much debate and concern for the last twenty years (or more). Two recent papers have brought this issue to the surface once again — it is worth looking at what these two papers add to the mix of what is known, and what solutions might be available. The first of these —

Demchak, Chris, and Yuval Shavitt. 2018. "China's Maxim — Leave No Access Point Unexploited: The Hidden Story of China Telecom's BGP Hijacking." Military Cyber Affairs 3 (1).

— traces the impact of Chinese "state actor" effects on BGP routing in recent years. Whether these are actual attacks, or mistakes from human error for various reasons generally cannot be known, but the potential, at least, for serious damage to companies and institutions relying on the DFZ is hard to overestimate. This paper lays out the basic problem, and the works through a number of BGP hijacks in recent years, showing how they misdirected traffic in ways that could have facilitated attacks, whether by mistake or intentionally. For instance, quoting from the paper:

  • Starting from February 2016 and for about 6 months, routes from Canada to Korean government sites were hijacked by China Telecom and routed through China.
  • On October 2016, traffic from several locations in the USA to a large Anglo-American bank
  • headquarters in Milan, Italy was hijacked by China Telecom to China.
  • Traffic from Sweden and Norway to the Japanese network of a large American news organization was hijacked to China for about 6 weeks in April/May 2017.

What impact could such a traffic redirection have? If you can control the path of traffic while a TLS or SSL session is being set up, you can place your server in the middle as an observer. This can, in many situations, be avoided if DNSSEC is deployed to ensure the certificates used in setting up the TLS session is valid, but DNSSEC is not widely deployed, either. Another option is to simply gather encrypted traffic and either attempt to break the key or use data analytics to understand what the flow is doing (a side channel attack).

What can be done about these kinds of problems? The "simplest" — and most naïve — answer is "let's just secure BGP." There are many, many problems with this solution. Some of them are highlighted in the second paper under review —

Bonaventure, Olivier. n.d. "A Survey among Network Operators on BGP Prefix Hijacking — Computer Communication Review." Accessed November 3, 2018.

— which illustrates the objections providers have to the many forms of BGP security that have been proposed to this point. The first is, of course, that it is expensive. The ROI of the systems proposed thus far are very low; the cost is high, and the benefit to the individual provider is rather low. There is both a race to perfection problem here, as well as a tragedy of the commons problem. The race to perfection problem is this: we will not design, nor push for the deployment of, any system which does not "solve the problem entirely." This has been the mantra behind BGPSEC, for instance. But not only is BGPSEC expensive — I would say to the point of being impossible to deploy — it is also not perfect.

The second problem in the ROI space is the tragedy of the commons. I cannot do much to prevent other people from misusing my routes. All I can really do is stop myself and my neighbors from misusing other people's routes. What incentive do I have to try to make the routing in my neighborhood better? The hope that everyone else will do the same. Thus, the only way to maintain the commons of the DFZ is for everyone to work together for the common good. This is difficult. Worse than herding cats.

A second point — not well understood in the security world — is this: a core point of DFZ routing is that when you hand your reachability information to someone else, you lose control over that reachability information. There have been a number of proposals to "solve" this problem, but it is a basic fact that if you cannot control the path traffic takes through your network, then you have no control over the profitability of your network. This tension can be seen in the results of the survey above. People want security, but they do not want to release the information needed to make security happen. Both realities are perfectly rational!

Part of the problem with the "more strict," and hence (considered) "more perfect" security mechanisms proposed is simply this: they are not quite enough. They expose far too much information. Even systems designed to prevent information leakage ultimately leak too much.

So… what do real solutions on the ground look like?

One option is for everyone to encrypt all traffic, all the time. This is a point of debate, however, as it also damages the ability of providers to optimize their networks. One point where the plumbing allegory for networking breaks down is this: all bits of water are the same. Not all bits on the wire are the same.

Another option is to rely less on the DFZ. We already seem to be heading in this direction, if Geoff Huston and other researchers are right. Is this a good thing, or a bad one? It is hard to tell from this angle, but a lot of people think it is a bad thing.

Perhaps we should revisit some of the proposed BGP security solutions, reshaping some of them into something that is more realistic and deployable? Perhaps — but the community is going to let go of the "but it's not perfect" line of thinking, and start developing some practical, deployable solutions that don't leak so much information.

Finally, there is a solution Leslie Daigle and I have been tilting at for a couple of years now. Finding a way to build a set of open source tools that will allow any operator or provider to quickly and cheaply build an internal system to check the routing information available in their neighborhood on the 'net, and mix local policy with that information to do some bare bones work to make their neighborhood a little cleaner. This is a lot harder than "just build some software" for various reasons; the work is often difficult — as Leslie says, it is largely a matter of herding cats, rather than inventing new things.

Written by Russ White, Network Architect at LinkedIn | 11/6/18
Versions of the hit British TV show in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden also feature well-sculpted singles in a Spanish villa. In other ways, they’re quite different. | 11/6/18
Secretary-General Antonio Guterres announced the appointment of veteran Norwegian diplomat Geir Pedersen to one of the U.N.'s toughest jobs on Wednesday — trying to bring peace to Syria after more than seven years of war. | 10/31/18
A force of NATO warships, aircraft and marines stormed a beach in Norway to practice repelling an invader, part of the bloc’s largest military exercises since the Cold War. | 10/31/18
The UK prime minister is in Norway and Brexit is bound to come up. | 10/30/18
NATO's secretary-general said Tuesday he is confident that both the Western military alliance and Russia "will act in a respectable way" as the two sides hold drills in the same area in waters off Norway's coast. | 10/30/18
"Oslo has experienced this before. And now it's happening again." Magnolia Pictures has released the a new official US trailer for The Quake, the "next big disaster movie from Norway" following the smash hit The Wave from a few years back. This movie is about a massive earthquake that hits Oslo, centered on a fault-line underneath the city of 1.7 million people. They had a big quake in 1904, but they still aren't prepared. The story follows various people trying to survive, of course. Also titled Skjelvet in Norwegian, the movie opened in Norway this summer, and it's opening in US theaters this December. Starring Ane Dahl Torp, Kristoffer Joner, Hang Tran, and Jonas Hoff Oftebro. It's fun to see Norway promoting their country through Emmerich-esque disaster movies, at least it's a change from the cities we usually see. Check it out. Here's the official US trailer (+ poster) for John Andreas Andersen's The Quake, direct from YouTube: You can still watch ...
Norway's sovereign wealth fund expects to double its investments in Saudi Arabia when the country is included in the fund's reference index a few months from now, Chief Executive Yngve Slyngstad said Friday.
Watch the latest visual from Norway’s pop powerhouse. | 10/26/18
Princess Mette-Marit has confirmed she has a form of fibrosis, which causes scarring of the lungs. | 10/25/18
NATO's biggest military maneuvers since the Cold War kicked off Thursday in Norway in a hypothetical scenario that involves restoring the Scandinavian country's sovereignty after an attack by a "fictitious aggressor." | 10/25/18

Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway has been diagnosed with a chronic lung disease.

A statement from the Royal Court released Wednesday revealed that the 45-year-old royal, who joined Norway’s royal family with her 2001 marriage to Crown Prince Haakon, has chronic pulmonary fibrosis.

According to the Mayo Clinic, the disease occurs when lung tissue becomes scarred and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood. There is currently no way to reverse or slow down the damage to the lungs.

“For a number of years, I have had health challenges on a regular basis, and now we know more about what these are in,” Crown Princess Mette-Marit said in a statement. “The condition means that the working capacity will vary. The Crown Prince and I choose to inform about this now, partly because in future there will be a need to plan periods without official program. In connection with treatment and when the disease is more active, this will be necessary.”

Can’t get enough of PEOPLE’s Royals coverage? Sign up for our newsletter to get the latest updates on Kate Middleton, Meghan Markle and more!

The disease is caused by a number of factors, but the Royal Court’s statement said that it’s “not yet clear” if Princess Mette-Marit’s condition “is linked to a more extensive autoimmune disease process or if there are other causes that underlie the lung changes.”

“The Crown Princess will have to undergo further investigation in the future and also treatment trials. In such conditions as the Crown Princess has, it is common for us to cooperate with environments abroad,” said her doctor, Professor Kristian Bjøro at the National Hospital.

View this post on Instagram

Kongefamilien var i ettermiddag samlet til julefotografering ved juletreet i Den røde salong på Slottet. Foto: Sven Gj. Gjeruldsen, Det kongelige hoff #kongehuset #kongefamilien #detkongeligeslott #jul #juletre

A post shared by Det Norske Kongehus (@detnorskekongehus) on Dec 19, 2017 at 12:40pm PST


Princess Mette-Marit was a single mother of a son, Marius Borg Høiby, 21, when she married Crown Prince Haakon, the first in line to the Norwegian throne after his father, King Harald V. Mette-Marit and Haakon also share two children: Princess Ingrid Alexandra, 14, and Prince Sverre Magnus, 12.

The Royal Court stressed that finding the disease early “is favorable considering the prognosis.”

“Although such a diagnosis in times will limit my life, I’m glad that the disease has been discovered so early,” Mette-Marit said in a statement. “My goal is still to work and participate in the official program as much as possible.”

In January, Princess Mette-Marit revealed she had been suffering from “crystal sickness,” which is a common name for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). The issue caused her to cancel an engagement last year.

“I turned my head quickly, and it was like the whole world began to move,” the Crown Princess told the Norwegian radio station P3 during an recent interview. “I began to sweat and felt nauseous — I thought I’d started early menopause.” | 10/25/18
Norway's wartime hero Joachim Ronneberg led a daring raid to stop Hitler's plan for an atomic bomb. | 10/22/18

After news earlier this week that Google was going to make sweeping changes to how it licenses Android within the European Union, The Verge now has the prices Google is going to charge.

EU countries are divided into three tiers, with the highest fees coming in the UK, Sweden, Germany, Norway, and the Netherlands. In those countries, a device with a pixel density higher than 500 ppi would have to pay a $40 fee to license Google's suite of apps, according to pricing documents. 400 to 500ppi devices would pay a $20 fee, while devices under 400 ppi would pay only $10. In some countries, for lower-end phones, the fee can be as little as $2.50 per device.

That's quite a bit more than I would've thought. | 10/19/18
The women, and their offspring, were punished and mistreated after Norway was liberated following World War II, and some were forced into exile. | 10/19/18
Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg admits that they were victims of "undignified treatment". | 10/17/18
Farao is the project of Berlin-based, Norway-born multi-instrumentalist Kari Jahnsen, who gained a fair bit of attention with her 2015 debut album Till It's All Forgotten . She’s a master of using cosmic and whimsical electronics to explore the dark sides of human relationships in unconventional prog-pop ballads. We've already heard stand-out tracks "Marry | 10/17/18
Archaeologists discovered the anomaly using radar scans of an area in Østfold County.
Tele München Group’s world sales unit, TM International, has sold its high-end television series “The Name of the Rose,” starring John Turturro, to multiple territories, including the BBC in the U.K., Sky in Germany and OCS in France. Additionally it has been acquired by YLE in Finland, NRK in Norway, DR in Denmark, SBS in […] | 10/15/18

Paul Greengrass‘ emotionally harrowing 22 July hit Netflix this week, and while it might be a hard film to watch, it might be an important one as well. The movie chronicles Norway’s deadliest terrorist attack, when 77 people were killed when a far-right extremist detonated a car bomb before carrying out a mass shooting. In the 22 July featurette […]

The post ’22 July’ Featurette Takes You Behind-the-Scenes of the Intense Paul Greengrass Netflix Film appeared first on /Film. | 10/13/18
The 22-year-old prodigy from Norway is back with “Sucker Punch.” | 10/12/18
School’s back in session and a startup that’s building games to help students learn has moved to the top of the class. Kahoot — the educational gaming startup out of Norway that has been a quick hit with schools in the US and elsewhere — today announced that it has raised 126.5 million Norwegian krone […] | 10/10/18
Norwegian authorities refused to identify the suspects or discuss the evidence. They filed charges two days before a deadline that would have forced them to drop the case. | 10/10/18