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Germany Politics

A regional branch of the far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) party accuses a state interior minister and intelligence chief of abusing their power. It has taken its complaint to the Federal Constitutional Court. | 12/11/18
A new leader for Germany’s conservatives also brings a new era in German politics. | 12/8/18
The three main contenders to succeed Angela Merkel as chairwoman of Germany’s largest political party have called for a review of a gas pipeline between Germany and Russia, potentially putting the party at odds with the chancellor’s government. | 12/6/18
German police have a problem finding and arresting violent neo-Nazis. The government admitted as much in a response to a parliamentary request from an opposition party. Recent history shows how dangerous this problem is. | 12/4/18
German police reportedly have a problem finding and arresting violent neo-Nazis. The government admitted as much in a response to a parliamentary request from a left-wing opposition party. | 12/4/18
From Berlin to Cologne, protesters have gathered to demand more from the government in the fight against climate change. Greenpeace said Germany must lead, and that means phasing out coal by 2030. | 12/1/18
A man who sat next to Angela Merkel on a commercial flight has shared his impressions of the German chancellor. Merkel was forced to take an Iberia Airlines flight after her government plane had problems. | 12/1/18
The Russian hacker group "Snake" has reportedly hacked email accounts of several German officials. The cyberattack was detected nearly a year after the group allegedly accessed Germany's government network. | 11/30/18
The German government has called on both Ukraine and Russia to de-escalate following a military crisis near the Crimean peninsula. Russia has seized three Ukrainian ships. | 11/26/18
The German government is slowly delivering on its promise to hash out a new immigration law to fill the massive gaps in the market for skilled labor. But experts say the law can only do so much. | 11/20/18
The state government of Lower Saxony is drafting a law that would ban judges and prosecutors from wearing religious clothing or symbols. Germany's justice minister has welcomed the plans. | 11/20/18
Germany is banning 18 Saudi citizens suspected of being involved in Jamal Khashoggi's death from entering Europe's Schengen zone. The government says it is also halting previously approved arms exports to Saudi Arabia. | 11/19/18

A version of this story about “Donbass” first appeared in the Foreign Language Issue of TheWrap’s Oscar magazine.

The war in eastern Ukraine between the government and the Russian-backed Donetsk People’s Republic is the subject of Sergei Loznitsa’s acidic and episodic film “Donbass,” part black comedy and part tragedy.

The film, which looks at the violence and corruption at every level of society, is Ukraine’s submission in this year’s Oscar foreign-language race. This interview with the prolific director, who has released three movies this year, is part of a series of conversations TheWrap had with the directors of contending films.

Also Read: 'Donbass' Review: Jarring War Film Reminds Us That No One Is Safe

I understand the film was inspired by YouTube videos.
SERGEI LOZNITSA: For the script, I did use some YouTube videos which I have seen. Or propaganda videos on the news. The rest are different episodes I heard from my friends who were there, who escaped from that territory.

And many of the people who played in my film have a connection — they were in that region and are now refugees of that war.

Why did you make it so episodic, with stories that don’t really connect?
It’s simple: I stole this idea from Buñuel. He made this film, “The Phantom of Liberty.” I wanted to describe society and describe the situation, and for that description I either have a protagonist who is a journalist, or I don’t need a protagonist. Because in all situation where I would like to be, what kind of person could be witnessing all these situations? Only a bird. So that’s why I just forget about protagonist. Situation is protagonist.

Or Ukraine is the protagonist?
Not Ukraine. This kind of disease. It’s not everywhere in Ukraine, this disease. This kind of destruction and dehumanization, where the human becomes an animal.

Also Read: Oscars Foreign Language Race 2018: Complete List of Submissions

The tone varies from tragedy to comedy to farce, but underneath it all is a real sense of anger at the violence and corruption that has enveloped this region.
Yeah, yeah, it’s true. It’s also very strange, from where this humor comes from. All this grotesquerie, the carnivalization of this situation, comes from situation itself. There are Russian soldiers lying about who they are, lying and playing a role. It reminds me of Molière.

And this kind of role-playing and hypocrisy applies a lot in recent politics. Our politicians try to hide who they are, and what they do is a performance. That happens all around the world — in America, in the election in Brazil. They elected a man because he was giving a performance, and that allowed him to say the kind of things you could never before say in a civilized society.

You make films constantly, alternating between documentaries and narrative features. Why so busy?
I like making films and I can do it quickly. So this year, I have “Donbass.” And I have “The Trial,” which is footage of Stalin’s trials from 1930 — it is a narrative, too, because the charges were fabricated and everyone in the courtroom, even the accused, knew they were giving a performance. And I have “Victory Day.” In Russia, the story of World War II is that they defeated Germany. They don’t talk about the United States or Great Britain or any other country. They celebrate it on May 9, and Russians have celebrations in Germany, which is very strange.

All of these films connect to each other — “Donbass,” “Victory Day” and “The Trial.” They connect with the topic: show, performance and theater unite all these films.

To read more of TheWrap’s Foreign Language Issue, click here.

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Oscars Give More Power in Foreign Language Voting to LA Members (Exclusive)

How 'Dogman' Took a Revenge Story and Added a Touch of Buster Keaton

'Roma,' 'Cold War' Lead Academy's List of 87 Films in the Oscars Foreign Language Race | 11/18/18
Twenty years after signing a global agreement to return art looted by the Nazis, Germany is accused of doing "far too little." The Berlin government recently tripled its funding for the ownership analysis of paintings. | 11/18/18
The German government said it is considering whether to allow the deportation of some Syrian asylum-seekers in the latest sign ruling conservatives are rethinking Angela Merkel’s immigration policies. | 11/18/18
The German government said it is considering whether to allow the deportation of some Syrian asylum-seekers in the latest sign ruling conservatives are rethinking Angela Merkel’s immigration policies. | 11/17/18
Since launching the Berlin version of its platform to denounce teachers who oppose its politics, the far-right Alternative for Germany says it's received thousands of complaints. DW's Tamsin Walker has one of her own. | 11/16/18
Germany's industrial giants have been reluctant to invest in the costly production of electric car battery cells until now. Will a €1 billion government grant be enough to recover time lost to China and South Korea? | 11/13/18
Yes, Angela Merkel has been in charge for 13 years, and Germany was a relatively early pioneer for women's suffrage. But there's still plenty of work to do to increase women’s representation in politics. | 11/12/18
One obvious question, now the CDU succession is open, is whether an already creaky coalition government can go on with both constituent parties suffering in the polls. Gerhard Schröder has already suggested that Merkel should call a vote of confidence … Continue reading → | 11/11/18
Germany's health minister has called for people without children to pay significantly more into the pension scheme. But others in the government have dismissed the idea as an attempt to punish childless residents. | 11/9/18
The two cities in western Germany are the latest to be ordered by a court to impose diesel vehicle bans. The German government is under pressure to get old, polluting vehicles off the roads. | 11/8/18
Germany is convinced that it should enable legal business relations with Iran and is checking how to protect companies affected by sanctions reimposed on Iran by Washington, a government spokesman said Monday.
Germany allocated roughly €1.8 billion for foreign aid projects last year alone, making the country the world's second-largest donor. An upcoming government report outlines the scope of Berlin's humanitarian spending. | 11/5/18
In the wake of a rape case involving Syrians in Germany, conservative lawmakers are demanding the government re-evaluate the security situation in Syria. Criminal refugees should be able to be deported, they say. | 11/5/18
Germany's outgoing domestic intelligence chief won't be given a new government job after lashing out at one of the governing parties, the interior minister said Monday. | 11/5/18
Maassen reportedly heavily criticized the government to other European security chiefs in his farewell speech. Interior Minister Horst Seehofer, who backed Maassen in other controversies, has declined to do so this time. | 11/4/18

Children of a Missouri candidate running as a Republican for the state’s 15 House District are urging the public to not vote for their father.

“I can’t imagine him being in any level of government,” Emily West told the Kansas City Star about her father Steve West, 64.

“A lot of his views are just very out there,” Emily told the outlet. “He’s made multiple comments that are racist and homophobic and how he doesn’t like the Jews.”

In August, Steve won the Republican primary by nearly 25 points.

Emily’s brother Andy West also spoke to The Star about their father’s beliefs. “My dad’s a fanatic. He must be stopped,” Andy began.

“His ideology is pure hatred. It’s totally insane,” Andy continued to The Star. “If he gets elected, it would legitimize him. Then he could become a state official, and he’s saying that Jews shouldn’t even have civil rights.”

Both Emily and Andy decided to take action after seeing the amount of support their father has acquired in the Clay County House district, which covers Gladstone and a part of Kansas City, The Star reports.

“I think it’s just insane that people are putting out his signs,” Emily continued.

“You see his signs everywhere. I don’t understand how people can put out his signs knowing the comments that he’s made,” Emily told The Star.

Andy even went as far as comparing his father to the suspect who opened fire at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh on Oct. 28, killing 11 people.

“The terrorist that engaged in that synagogue shooting and my father have the same objective,” Andy explained to the newspaper.

“That objective is the removal of Jews from America. And certainly, if somebody who is already unstable gets the kind of message he’s preaching, it’s all bad,” Andy said.

In October, on his radio show called The Hard Truth with Jack Justice, Steve spoke on the United States’ relationship with Israel, The Star reports.

“We have this alliance, but it’s not reciprocal alliance… for Israel, it’s what can they get out of it,” Steve explained. “They have been running this assault on America. They have been giving us gay marriage, pornography, abortion, everything that’s anti-Christian… This is what they do. This is how they corrupt a Christian nation, because they are an anti-Christ people.”

According to WIBW, Steve previously made Anti-semitic comments on his show back in 2017, saying, “Looking back in history, unfortunately, Hitler was right about what was taking place in Germany. And who was behind it.”

RELATED: Chris Evans and Zoe Kravitz Reveal Their ‘First Times’ For a Good Cause — to Get People to Vote!

As a result of his actions, Steve’s children have decided to distance themselves, The Star reports. Emily explained she hasn’t spoken to him in several weeks.

“I asked him to drop out and said, ‘I think it’s a really bad idea that you’re running and I don’t think this is going to end well for you,'” Emily said.

“And he told me that this what his life has been about and that everything in his life has come to this moment and it’s the most important thing. And I said, ‘OK, then I don’t want to talk to you. I don’t want you to be a part of my life.’ And I haven’t talked to him since,” Emily told the newspaper.

Despite Steve’s success at the polls, the Republican Party has denounced his views.

“Steve West’s shocking and vile comments do not reflect the position of the Missouri Republican Party or indeed of any decent individual,” The Missouri Republican Party said in a statement obtained by The Hill.

RELATED: Taylor Swift Urges Fans to Vote Against ‘Fear-Based Extremism’ in Upcoming Elections

“West’s abhorrent rhetoric has absolutely no place in the Missouri Republican Party or anywhere. We wholeheartedly condemn his comments.”

Steve did not immediately respond to PEOPLE’s request for comment. | 11/2/18
In Germany, it isn’t just right-wing populists that are getting a boost from disenchantment with Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government. There is another winner: the Greens. | 10/31/18
A onetime rival of Chancellor Angela Merkel who is running for her party's leadership after a decade-long absence from front-line politics downplayed potential tensions with the German leader on Wednesday. | 10/31/18
Angela Merkel has connected African leaders with the CEOs of Germany's top firms. The Compact With Africa, her government's multibillion-dollar investment project, will repeat old mistakes, DW's Ludger Schadomsky writes. | 10/30/18
Her retreat from politics could give Germany a chance to re-establish its political center. | 10/30/18
Angela Merkel's decision not to seek re-election as party leader in December or as chancellor in 2021 was "all part of the plan." How long her final government lasts now depends on who the CDU chooses to replace her. | 10/29/18
Chancellor Angela Merkel’s beleaguered government has suffered a new blow after both her party and its coalition partner suffered losses in Sunday’s election in one of Germany’s wealthiest states. | 10/29/18
Chancellor Angela Merkel’s beleaguered government has suffered a new blow after both her party and its coalition partner suffered losses in Sunday’s election in one of Germany’s wealthiest states. | 10/29/18
Voters in Hesse state punished Ms. Merkel’s conservatives and their partners in national government. Parties on the left and the right gained ground. | 10/29/18
Germany's governing parties lost significant support in a state election Sunday that was marked by discontent with infighting in Chancellor Angela Merkel's national government and prompted calls for her administration to get its act together quickly. | 10/28/18
The size of a radical movement that rejects the legitimacy of the modern German state has grown to 19,000. Authorities have stepped up efforts to crack down on the far-right extremists, some of whom are armed. | 10/27/18
The left-wing band's concert was cancelled in eastern Germany over its "extreme" politics. | 10/26/18

Next Monday, 29 October, most of the formal representatives of the world's nations will convene for three weeks to collectively consider the most significant developments in global network communications networks and services, and make multilateral adjustments in a treaty instrument signed by almost every country at the end. They will also elect heads of the various International Telecommunication Union (ITU) secretariats and permanent bodies for the next four years. Once called a "conference of high contracting parties," it is today referred to as the "plenipotentiary conference" because the representatives can act and sign for their Nation States. PP-2018 is being hosted by the UAE in Dubai.

This multilateral process has been occurring for the past 168 years since nations first decided to interconnect their communication networks and services. Contrary to purported experts, the ITU is *not* part of the U.N., but its own independent treaty-based organization which has an agreement to facilitate U.N. member needs through its own separate instruments and activities that date back a hundred years before the U.N. came into existence.

It is also worth noting that it was the U.S. after both the First and Second World Wars who was chiefly responsible for creating the contemporary ITU — writing its treaty instruments and hosting the related multilateral conferences in Washington DC and Atlantic City. The U.S. at the time was seeking cooperative international global solutions for internetwork and security challenges posed by new technologies spanning multiple national jurisdictions, and one of the principal leaders, Jerry Gross, was subsequently elected Secretary-General. Until the mid-90s, the U.S. dominated almost all the many ITU venues.

I have had the privilege of writing some of the history and analyzing the "Plenipots" for the past fifty years — including stints on the inside both as a ITU Member U.S. government employee and helping running the PP-1989 Nice Secretariat. It is making "legislative sausage" on a global scale. My interest as a lawyer and engineer analyst variously in government, industry and academia is public international law and the treatment of major technical and operational challenges.

Worth noting is the larger reality that the ITU activities have always set on a global political-economic ecosystem that shapes where and how communication products and services are created and made available in the marketplace. Both the individual national and institutional players in that ecosystem have changed significantly over the past two decades. For example, there has been dramatic transformative shifts from legacy government-provided telecommunications to diverse mobile offerings and internets, and now to NFV and 5G combined with the proliferation of device connectivity and big data analysis. Institutionally, the industry work has shifted massively to 3GPP and a mix of non-ITU venues.

The principal enduring requirement — maintaining sovereignty

Every nation has absolute, sovereign jurisdiction within its geographic boundaries over its communication networks and services, including radio emissions and satellites. It is the basic predicate of public international law and national existence. Every nation asserts its absolute sovereignty. Its assertion has existed as the threshold provision in every related treaty instrument. Every communication and radio emission that crosses a national boundary occurs pursuant to ITU treaty provisions — with the understanding that each nation nonetheless still has absolute jurisdiction within its borders and can establish additional non-contravening arrangements.

Sovereignty became a challenge when networks were first interconnected across national borders in 1850, and increased with each new technology — especially radio internets a hundred years ago, then radio communication satellites in the 1960s, then data communication internets in the 1970s.

Today, similar challenges arise from virtualized extraterritorial networks and services instantiated across national boundaries — both NFV (Network Functions Virtualisation) and so-called Over the Top (OTT) manifestations provided from cloud data centers. It is a profound change for network architectures and provisioning with substantial obstacles. Emerging use of ephemeral end-to-end encryption dramatically escalates the jurisdiction (and security) concerns. Rational nations are not likely to forfeit needed controls over these implementations — which if not accomplished multilaterally, will result in domestic Balkanisation within each country that will drive up provider costs. Some treatment of these prominent exterritorial developments that adversely impact the exercise of national sovereignty were expected at PP-2018.

The second enduring requirement – maintaining cybersecurity

Cybersecurity challenges today have become enormous as a result of multiple legal and technical factors. As with sovereignty, national security requirements have been a fundamental component of ITU treaty instruments since their inception.

Although cybersecurity solutions were developed for the radio sector a hundred years ago, the challenge for internetworking platforms on top of transport services have proven intractable and become exponentially devastating over the past two decades in part because Member nations have been unable to cooperate in establishing necessary multilateral legal, technical, and operational platforms and practices. Tossing the problem to "the marketplace" or end-users has also proven to be a non-solution.

The emerging use of ephemeral end-to-end encryption is beginning to create significant vulnerabilities as both criminals as well as nation-state sponsored adversaries adapt the platforms for theft, fraud and regime-change tactics by tunneling into remote servers and user end-points. Here also, significant treatment of cybersecurity was expected at PP-2018.

The PP2018 proposals

Extensive proposals were submitted by six regional blocs: Africa; Asia-Pacific; Arab; CITEL (Americas); Europe; RCC (Russian Regional Commonwealth). An additional nine proposals were separately submitted by: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica & Dominican Republic; Brazil; Canada & USA; Central African Republic; China; Germany; India; Switzerland; USA. A common practice in recent Plenipots, the proposals focussed on the Resolutions contained in the Final Acts rather than organic provisions of the Constitution and Convention. The documents are publicly available.

While most of the proposals are generic and certain to be widely supported, a substantive focus also emerges on sovereignty and cybersecurity — manifested through resolutions on OTT provisioning, cybersecurity, and revision of the International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs).

OTT. The OTT concerns internationally are a parallel to Network Neutrality domestically. Along with network operators, nations assert a right to control the communication services on their infrastructures to meet their own requirements — including sovereignty. OTT developments are also a precursor of NFV and 5G implementations of virtualized services and a fundamental change in how network communications are implemented. From a sovereignty perspective, the "global rules of the road" are fundamentally important for every nation. At the PP-2014, only the Arab bloc mentioned OTT developments. Now, four years later, OTT related proposals were submitted by four regional blocs (Africa, Arab, Europe, RCC) plus Brazil and China individually.

All of the proposals except China's offer different versions of a new resolution on OTT that largely call for further study over the next four years. The Africa bloc expresses a specific concern regarding OTT end-to-end encryption. Rather than proposing a new resolution, China simply notes that "fast growing OTT, in particular, has posed unprecedented challenges to the development and security of telecommunications/ICT worldwide" and calls for its consideration as part of further studies related to amended International Telecommunication Regulations.

Cybersecurity. Because countries treat national security as a fundamental role of the State, cybersecurity provisions have been a basic component of every treaty instrument since 1850. Those provisions are scattered throughout the bodies of the instruments. With the increasing introduction of DARPA internet platforms in public infrastructures beginning in the mid-90s, cybersecurity emerged as a serious network security challenge. The scaling security incidents resulted in the first explicit Plenipotentiary resolution in 2002 — subsequently known as Res. 130 and prescient in its articulation of the problems.

The Resolution evolved and expanded every four years since 2002, and for PP-2018 is the subject of all the regional bloc proposals (except RCC) plus Brazil and India. All the proposals are a variation on similar themes — calling attention to the problems and for all ITU bodies and participants in its work to collaborate globally to meet growing threats and challenges. Brazil called for use of the concept of cyber-hygiene that has been appearing in national cybersecurity strategies, as well as using the common term "cybersecurity" rather than the odd political construct "building confidence and security in the use of information and communication technologies." Although cybersecurity remains a profound threat for every nation, the complexity and dynamics of the challenges in a global intergovernmental setting seem to elude definitive solutions.

ITRs. Among ITU treaty instruments, there are presently two sets of International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs) - one signed by essentially all nations in 1988 to enable public internets and facilitate global trade in services, and another in 2012 signed by half of those nations. The divergence represents a bifurcation among nations on the role of multilateral instruments and ITU bodies as facilitating institutions. Entwined are concerns of sovereignty and cybersecurity, as well as growth and control of global markets for products and services. The divergence resulted in a PP-2014 resolution calling for additional dialogue and study — designated Res. 146.

Five regional blocs (Africa, Arab, Europe, CITEL, RCC) submitted proposals plus China. The proposals not unexpectedly reflect the existing divergence with Europe opposing any further ITR related efforts, and the others offering Res. 146 changes that continue the efforts and look toward further consideration at PP-2022. RCC offered a detailed composite of the 1988 and 2012 ITR provisions and suggesting a harmonization among them.

Although the divergences here have existed since the inception of the ITU and its precursors, current nationalistic trends are leading away from convergence and cooperation, so the course for the near future remains uncertain until triggered by evolving extraterritorial or cybersecurity requirements. In the meantime, Res. 146 seems likely to remain in modified form to continue study and dialogue.

The PP2018 elections

The elections are comparatively uneventful. The current Secretary-General Houlin Zhao is a highly regarded and experienced leader set to begin his second term and running uncontested. Other positions among the various ITU secretariats and boards are either uncontested or being pursued by multiple highly qualified candidates. The organization's construct of relatively independent sectors largely driven by industry contributions — except for the very large Radio Sector which is driven by every nation's spectrum management agency — is a proven construct that continues to serve common global needs.

The Long Arc

Although there are contemporary challenges, the PP-2018 should finish successfully. The submitted proposals are rather generic and designed to promote unity and stability. The process of reaching agreement on Final Acts tends to result in provisions on which every nation can give nuanced approval — sometimes combined with clarifying statements. For 168 years through constant technical and political-economic changes in the world, the value proposition of engagement and cooperation under the ITU aegis have remained compelling.

Written by Anthony Rutkowski, Principal, Netmagic Associates LLC | 10/25/18
Travelers to Turkey might get arrested if they criticize the Erdogan regime on social media, Germany's foreign ministry said in its official guidelines. Even "liking" an anti-government post could cause serious trouble. | 10/25/18
Chancellor Angela Merkel has offered government support to efforts to open up Germany to U.S. gas, a key concession to President Trump as he tries to loosen Russia’s grip on Europe’s largest energy market. | 10/22/18
More than 100 migrants who were rescued at sea have been waiting months to be transferred to Germany, the German government says. Bureaucracy seems to be the main obstacle. | 10/21/18

Filed under: Government/Legal,Green,Audi,Emissions,Technology,Diesel

Audi's former CEO, meanwhile, remains in jail.

Continue reading Audi fined $925 million in Germany for dieselgate scandal

Audi fined $925 million in Germany for dieselgate scandal originally appeared on Autoblog on Tue, 16 Oct 2018 09:20:00 EDT. Please see our terms for use of feeds.

Permalink  |  Email this  |  Comments | 10/16/18
Germany’s political fragmentation deepened after allies of Angela Merkel took a beating in a crucial regional election in Bavaria, raising questions about how long the chancellor can keep control of her brittle coalition government. | 10/15/18
Germany’s political fragmentation deepened after allies of Angela Merkel took a beating in a crucial regional election in Bavaria, raising questions about how long the chancellor can keep control of her brittle coalition government. | 10/15/18
Elections in two of Germany’s most prosperous regions are likely to diminish Chancellor Angela Merkel’s conservative bloc and further destabilize her fragile government, potentially even jeopardizing her leadership. | 10/12/18
Fifty years ago, West Germany signed a labor agreement with the socialist government of Yugoslavia. Many of the guest workers initially came to the country for one year, but ended up staying the rest of their lives. | 10/12/18
Elections in two of Germany’s most prosperous regions are likely to diminish Chancellor Angela Merkel’s conservative bloc and further destabilize her fragile government, potentially even jeopardizing her leadership. | 10/12/18

Filed under: Government/Legal,Green,Emissions

EU acts in response to this week's dire climate-change report.

Continue reading Germany's car industry says new EU anti-CO2 rules threaten jobs

Germany's car industry says new EU anti-CO2 rules threaten jobs originally appeared on Autoblog on Wed, 10 Oct 2018 09:45:00 EDT. Please see our terms for use of feeds.

Permalink  |  Email this  |  Comments | 10/10/18

The Federal Republic of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic, based on representative democracy. The Chancellor is the head of government, while the President of Germany is the head of state which holds a ceremonial role but substantial reserve powers. Executive power is vested in the Federal Cabinet (Bundesregierung), and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the regional states). There is a multi-party system that, since 1949, has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after 1990's German reunification. The constitution emphasises the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human rights and also divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. In many ways, the 1949 Basic Law is a response to the perceived flaws of the 1919 Weimar Constitution, which did not prevent the rise of the Nazi party in 1933.

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